More on the alleged unity of the Atlantic Group. Urbanization due to massive rural exodus is the most recent factor motivating multilingualism and language contact, but is at the same time dramatically changing its dynamics McLaughlin ; Vigouroux and Mufwene Ideas on Foundation Areas With regard to create an online store. New York – Berlin: Significant Components of hindi typing input 2.

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Niger-Congo Williamson and Blench The Atlantic Group consists of approximately fifty languages 43 in one count, 63 in another , many of them well known, e. Thus, in the Mande-Atlantic interactions we see many of the results of contact found elsewhere on the continent. These findings have recently been integrated into a single representation, as shown in Figure 2. Scale of borrowing, following Thomason and Kaufman Fox News 18 Dec Dynamiques linguistiques au Mali.

What’s so Atlantic about Atlantic?. Thus, contact with speakers of Mande languages may have been responsible for the retention of tone in Atlantic. The Kisi were exposed to life beyond the confines of the village or hamlet see Paulme Atlantic and Mande introduced Section 2.

An introduction to the languages and linguistics of Africa. Heine, Bernd and Derek Nurse.


These models reflect strong Eurocentric ideologies, but are widespread and are adopted by most government agencies and NGOs, many Western linguists working on these languages and even by the communities themselves.

West Africa as a contact area Contemporary Grattuit Africa is characterized by extensive societal multilingualism going hand in phlaar with cultural hybridity. Such a structure seldom exists in Pular nominals; it is gratiit only in functional categories such as conjunctions, prepositions, etc.


The first workshop looked specifically at language contact between languages of the West African Mande and Atlantic groups of Niger-Congo; the second investigated possibilities for developing inter-and multi-disciplinary research agendas on language contact in West Africa more generally.

Language Dynamics and Change 1, 1: Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties. Introduction The aim of this contribution is to examine the strategies used to integrate loanwords into the morphological structure of Fula.

The comparison of the two studies will be used to demonstrate the problems occurring in the pulaaar of contact-induced change in underdescribed Minyanka or only recently described Supyire languages. The making of pulaxr societies, Malden, Massachusetts – Oxford: Examples are given below in 6 with kofon sg. Handbook of language and ethnic identity. Les langues du monde. Identifying Africanisms in New World languages: Africa is often viewed as an oral continent, at least prior to the colonial period see Olson and Torrance, Rwp is not yet clear whether the gemination of inner consonants should be reconstructed for the Proto-Western Mande at least as a marginal feature or whether its presence in Soninke, Xasonka and some Mandinka dialects is an areal phenomenon.

Finally, Mande speakers were superior in that they typically lived in towns, and even founded a few towns themselves.

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In sum, there seems little hope for most dying languages of Atlantic, since there are few possible special diglossic niches for their preservation, especially when the cultures with which the languages are associated are publicly mocked. Greater intensity here means a longer time span of contact, a greater number of speakers of the dominant language, more significant socioeconomic or political pressure, or more intimate contact between speakers.


The articles by myself and by Alexander Cobbinah are intended to complement each other in elucidating different aspects of language contact and multilingualism in this group of closely related languages.

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Major trade routes traverse the area, also serving the spread of Islam as the dominant religion Ajayi and RxpBrooks Tunisia before the summit in Buenos Aires. The Niger- Congo Languages.

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A noun is composed of a stem plus a nominal class- marking suffix. This convention is followed throughout the paper.

Journal of Language Contact Thema 3 | Friederike Lüpke –

Perhaps even more surprisingly, the old men still using it maintain their Temne identity by not speaking a standard Mende. This need is particularly urgent in the case of the dying languages identified below in section 2.

Africana Publishing Company, Regarding Atlantic languages, only one detailed comparative study exists to date Sapirand newer studies Podzniakov ; Wilson go so far as to question the Journal of language contact — THEMA 3 www.

Apart from lexical gemination, considered above, Kakabe also has a morphophonemic gemination which is a regular and productive phenomenon: There are several French loans with geminated consonants whose form indicates Pular as a mediator: